ethnomusicologia

traditional and fusion musics from around the world

The bağlama (Turkish: bağlama, from bağlamak, “to tie”) is a stringed musical instrument shared by various cultures in the Eastern Mediterranean, Near East, and Central Asia regions.

It is sometimes referred to as the saz (from the Persian ساز‎, meaning a kit or set), although the term “saz” actually refers to a family of plucked string instruments, long-necked lutes used in Ottoman classical music, Turkish folk music, Azeri music, Kurdish music, Assyrian music, Armenian music, and in parts of Syria, Iraq and the Balkan countries. Instruments resembling today’s bağlama have been found in archaeological excavations of Sumerian and Hittite mounds in Anatolia dating before Common Era, and in ancient Greek works.

The bağlama is a synthesis of historical musical instruments in Central Asia and pre-Turkish Anatolia. It is partly descended from the Turkic komuz. The kopuz, or komuz, differs from the bağlama in that it has a leather-covered body and two or three strings made of sheep gut, wolf gut, or horsehair. It is played with the fingers rather than a plectrum and has a fingerboard without frets. Bağlama literally translates as “something that is tied up”, probably a reference to the tied-on frets of the instrument. The word bağlama is first used in 18th-century texts.

According to The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, “the terms “bağlama” and “saz” are used somewhat interchangeably in Turkey.” Like the Western lute and the Middle-Eastern oud, it has a deep round back, but a much longer neck. It can be played with a plectrum or with a fingerpicking style known as şelpe.

In the music of Greece the name baglamas (Greek: μπαγλαμάς) is given to a treble bouzouki, a related instrument. The Turkish settlement of Anatolia from the late eleventh century onward saw the introduction of a two-string Turkmen dutar, which was played in some areas of Turkey until recent times.

The most commonly used string folk instrument in Turkey, the bağlama has seven strings divided into courses of two, two and three. It can be tuned in various ways and takes different names according to region and size: Bağlama, Divan Sazı, Bozuk, Çöğür, Kopuz Irızva, Cura, Tambura, etc.

a really great song featuring bağlama is the arabesk hit “bir teselli ver” by orhan gencebay, who was a trained singer and bağlama player in the turkish classical tradition.

click here to listen.

hiphopfightsplaque:

Elvis Who?//Listen Here
a playlist honoring the creativity of Black rock & roll artists and the rebellious Black youth who kept their records spinning. Also features some Rock en Español.

1.Caldonia-Louis Jordan //2.Shake, Rattle & Roll-Big Joe Turner // 3.Bo Diddley-Bo Diddley // 4.Demolicion-Los Saicos // 5.Johnny B. Goode-Chuck Berry // 6.Tuttie Frutti-Little Richard // 7.Hound Dog-Big Mama Thornton // 8.Roll Over Beethoven-Chuck Berry // 9.La Chica Alborotada-Los Locos del Ritmo // 10.El Ultimo Beso-Los Doltons // 11.Little Red Rooster-Big Mama Thornton // 12.Blueberry Hill-Fats Domino // 13.Boogie Woogie Country Girl-Big Joe Turner // 14.La Bamba-Ritchie Valens // 15.Jambalaya-Fats Domino // 16.Long Tall Sally-Little Richard // 17.(Your Love Keeps Lifting Me) Higher and Higher-Jackie Wilson

photo cred

hiphopfightsplaque:

Elvis Who?//Listen Here

a playlist honoring the creativity of Black rock & roll artists and the rebellious Black youth who kept their records spinning. Also features some Rock en Español.

1.Caldonia-Louis Jordan //2.Shake, Rattle & Roll-Big Joe Turner // 3.Bo Diddley-Bo Diddley // 4.Demolicion-Los Saicos // 5.Johnny B. Goode-Chuck Berry // 6.Tuttie Frutti-Little Richard // 7.Hound Dog-Big Mama Thornton // 8.Roll Over Beethoven-Chuck Berry // 9.La Chica Alborotada-Los Locos del Ritmo // 10.El Ultimo Beso-Los Doltons // 11.Little Red Rooster-Big Mama Thornton // 12.Blueberry Hill-Fats Domino // 13.Boogie Woogie Country Girl-Big Joe Turner // 14.La Bamba-Ritchie Valens // 15.Jambalaya-Fats Domino // 16.Long Tall Sally-Little Richard // 17.(Your Love Keeps Lifting Me) Higher and Higher-Jackie Wilson

photo cred

thestolencaryatid:

The music of Epirus, in the northwest of Greece (present to varying degree in the rest of Greece and the islands) contains folk songs that are mostly pentatonic and polyphonic, sung by both male and female singers. Distinctive songs include lament songs (mirolóyia), shepherd’s songs (skáros) and drinking songs (tis távlas). The clarinet is the most prominent folk instrument in Epirus, used to accompany dances, mostly slow and heavy, like the menousisfisounipodhiasta diosta triazagorisioskentimenikoftosyiatros and tsamikos. The polyphonic song of Epirus constitutes one of the most interesting musical forms, not only for the east Mediterranean and the Balkans, but also for the worldwide repertoire of the folk polyphony. Except from its scale, what pleads for the very old origin of the kind is its vocal, collective, rhetorical and modal character.

The corresponding dances are slow and stately; they are invariably danced in counterclockwise circles. Women’s dances are especially noble, allowing for a minimum of leg and arm movement, and calling for formal traditional attire: ankle-length black coats, gold thread tuques with a single long tassel, and hammered gold jewelry.

Bolded for relevance; this is a lament danced (around 5:30) as a kofto sta tria (cut in three), three slow steps to the right one to the left, while lifting the leg and shifting downwards and touching the ground to grieve the loved one.

idishvinkl:

This is a Doleful Lullaby: Geien sei in shvarze raien.

Yiddish to english:

Rockaby baby… night and rain, night and wind; people walk along the muddy roads, famished like dogs, beaten like dogs, where are they going? Only the night knows - only the wind knows- for they have heard sobs and piercing cries -they walk in back files… Sleep, my sweet child, sleep. Night and rain, night and wind…

fareynikteorganizatsye:

Hey! Zhankoye!

אַז מע פֿאָרט קיין סעוואַסטאָפּאָל ,
איז ניט ווײַט פֿון סימפֿעראָפּאָל ,
דאָרטן איז אַ סטאַנציע פֿאַראַן.
ווער דאַרף זוכן נײַע גליקן?
ס’איז אַ סטאַנציע , אַן אַנטיקל ,
אין דזשאַנקאָיע , דזשאַן דזשאַן דשזאַן !
רעפֿרען..
היי, דזשאַן , היי דזשאַנקאָיע
היי דזשאַנווילי , היי דזשאַנקאָיע
היי דזשאַנקאָיע , דזשאַן,דזשאַן,דזשאַן!
ענטפֿערט ייִדן אויף מײַן קשיה ,
ווו איז מײַן ברודער, ווו’ז אַבראַשע?
ס’גייט בײַ אים דער טראַקטאָר ווי אַ באַן ,
די מומע לאה- בײַ דער קאָסילקע ,
ביילע בײַ דער מאָלאָטילקע
אין דזשאַנקאָיע , דזשאַן ,דזשאַן ,דזשאַן !
רעפֿרען..
ווער זאָגט אַז ייִדן קענען נאָר האַנדלען
עסן פֿעטע יויך מיט מאַנדלען ,
נאָר ניט זײַן קיין אַרבעטסמאַן?
דאָס קענען זאָגן נאָר די שׂונאים
ייִדן , שפּײַט זיי אָן אין פּנים
טוט אַ קוק אויף דזשאַן דזשאַן דזשאַן!

Az men fort keyn Sevastopol,
Iz nit vayt fun Simferopol,
Dortn iz a stantsie faran.
Ver darf zukhn naye glikn ?
S’iz a stantsie an antikl ,
In Dzhankoye, dzhan, dzhan dzhan !
Refrain :
Hey dzhan, hey dzhankoye
Hey dzhanvili, hey dzhankoye
Hey dzhankoye, dzhan dzhan dzhan !
Enfert yidn oyf mayn kashe,
Vu iz mayn bruder, vu iz Abrashe ?
S’geyt bay im der traktor vi a ban ,
Di mume Leye bay der kosilke ,
Beyle bay der molotilke
In Dzhankoye, dzhan, dzhan dzhan !
Refrain …
Ver zogt az yidn kenen nor handlen
Esn fete yoykh mit mandlen,
Nor nit zayn keyn arbetsman?
Dos konen zogn nor di sonim -
Yidn, shpayt zey on in ponim
Tut a kuk oyf dzhan dzhan dzhan

When you go to Sevastopol
Not too far from Simferopol
There’s a little depot there
Why seek your luck elsewhere?
It’s a special kind of depot.
In Zhankoye, zhan zhan zhan

Refrain
Hey zhan, hey Zhankoye
Hey zhanvili, hey Zhankoye
Hey Zhankoye, zhan zhan zhan

Jews, answer my question
Where’s my brother Abrasha?
He who rides his tractor like a train
Aunt Leah is at the mower
Bella is working the thresher
In zhankoye…

Who says that Jews can only be traders
And eat fat soup with soup nuts
But cannot be workingmen?
Only our enemies can say that -
Jews, let’s spit right in their faces,
Simply look at zhan, zhan, zhan

A song about Jewish Agricultural settlements near/in Zhankoye in Crimea, in the very earliest days of the Soviet Union.

ardaharl:

atlasobscura:

Inuit Throat-Singing: A Gutteral Game Gets a Cultural Resurgence

“It’s a friendly competition between girls, something they would do while the men were out hunting,” said Kathy in at interview at the conference. Karin added: ”It’s part of Inuit culture. It’s an oral tradition, it’s something that can’t be written down, it has to be learned from someone else,.”

A “game” of throat-singing begins with two women facing each other, standing close and sometimes holding each other’s arms. One begins to sing, while the other follows. The game can last up to a few minutes, and ends when one loses her breath, laughs, or breaks concentration in any way. Some sources, such as Pulaarvik Kablu Friendership Centre, cite that it was once practiced with their lips practically touching, the women using their opponent’s mouth cavity as a sound resonator.

For more of the rich cultural history of Canada’s Inuit throat-singing, keep reading on Atlas Obscura…

What a wonderful thing.

thisismythirdblog:

Anonymous English Folk-Song
Sumer Is Icumen In

Sumer Is Icumen In is an impressive historical piece of music for many reasons. Estimated to have been written around 1260, it is the oldest English round to feature six-part polyphony. To those unfamiliar with music terminology, a round is a composition in which a singer begins to sing part of a verse, while another singer joins in and sings the same part, at different times, to create two independent melodies. This composition features four such independent melodies, with an additional two melodies underneath forming an ostinato bass-line.

While this piece may be fascinating to those who study music, it may also interest those who are interested in linguistics. This round is written in the Wessex dialect of Middle English. One advantage that written music offers us, in the perspective of studying old languages, is that we can hear quite clearly how the language would have been spoken. This folk song therefore should interest anybody who is curious as to how the English language has evolved over the years. Interestingly enough, the manuscript for this piece is bilingual. The lyrics were written in Middle English, while the instructions on how to perform the piece were written in Latin. This should give some insight as to how common and widespread Latin was in this time period, many years after the Latin language had left the confines of its native region.

Those interested in the lyrics can read them in both Middle English and Modern English, over here

baruchobramowitz:

Copper-plated, nailed together
Buffeted by ocean weather
Stands the Queen of Exiles
And our mother she may be
Hollow-breasted, broken-hearted
Watching for her dear departed
For her children cast upon the sea